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(Heaviness) and Lightness (Part1)
definition of tafkheem: Fattening
linguistic definition of tarqeeq
Arabic letters are divided into three groups as to tafkheem and tarqeeq:
always have tafkheem. These are
the seven letters in the group
They are also called the tafkheem letters.
Letters that have tafkheem sometimes and tarqeeq other times.
The lengthened alif.
the Glorious name of
3. Letters that always have tarqeeq. This group consists of the rest of the Arabic alphabet.
The Letters That Always Have Tafkheem
seven letters of
group make up this
category. The letters of
Levels of Tafkheem
are two different schools of thought when it comes to tafkheem.
Both are correct, but the reader should follow one or the other in
Three Levels of Tafkheem
school of thought has three different levels in tafkheem.
The strongest being the tafkheem letter that has a fat-h, the second
being the tafkheem letter with a dhammah, and the third level, the tafkheem
letter with a kasrah. The saakin
tafkheem letter follows the level of tafkheem of the vowel on the letter
before it. This means if the
tafkheem letter is saakin, and the letter before it has a fat-ha, then the
tafkheem letter will be at the highest level of tafkheem (as the
. The saakin letter of tafkheem preceded by a dhammah would have the second
level of tafkheem (as the
The saakin tafkheem letter
preceded by a kasrah is at the lowest level of tafkheem (such as the
Sheikh Mohammed Al-Mutawali described these levels in the following
the heavy ones come
The one with a fath,
then the dhammah, then the kasrah,
what came before it in a vowel,
The Five Levels of Tafkheem
second school of thought of tafkheem has five levels.
The highest level being a tafkheem letter being followed by a long alif
(for example the
The second level is a tafkheem letter with a fathah on it (such as the
The next level that of a tafkheem letter having a dhammah (as in
The next level is a tafkheem letter with a sukoon (for example
And the last level, that of a tafkheem letter with a kasrah (such as the
This school of thought as to tafkheem varies from the previous three level
school in a few ways. First, the
tafkheem letter with a fathah has two categories, that of a fath followed by
an alif, and then a fathah not followed by an alif.
This school also varies from the previous one in that the tafkheem
letter with a sukoon has its own level of tafkheem, whereas the other school
of thought has the saakin letter following the tafkheem level of the vowel on
the letter preceding it. This means that there will be a difference of
tafkheem between the saakin letters in this group, which are not affected by
the vowel of the letter preceding it, and the other group which is totally
affected by the vowel on the letter preceding it.
For example, a saakin tafkheem letter preceded by a fathah in the three
level school of thought, will have the highest ranking of tafkheem, whereas a
saakin tafkheem letter of this five level school of thought, will have the 4th
degree of tafkheem. Ash-Sheikh Al-Mutawali described the five levels of
tafkheem in the following lines:
it is said, no the one with the fat-hah followed by an alif
one with the dhammah, the saakin, the one with the kasrah;
if it is in the lowest level
Next tidbit lesson, insha' Allah will continue with tafkheem and tarqeeq, moving on to explain the letters that sometimes have tafkheem and sometimes tarqeeq.