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The Secondary Medd

Its definition: It is a lengthening that has a longer timing (or the possibility of longer timing) than that of the natural medd 
( )  due to a hamzah or a sukoon. 
The medd letters, without this hamzah or sukoon stand on their normal timing of two vowel counts. 

Its indications: The occurrence of a hamzah before or after a medd letter, or a sukoon after it, regardless if the sukoon is permanent (when continuing and when stopping), or if the sukoon is a presented one. 
is divided into two groups:

1.      The medd due to hamzah

2.      The medd due to sukoon  

The medd due to hamzah is sub-divided into four groups:

  1.                               The Exchange lengthening

  2.                                  The Required Joined Lengthening

  3.                                    The Allowed Separated Lengthening

  4.                                  The Greater Connective Lengthening

The lengthening due to sukoon sub-divides into three types:

  1.      The Presented Sukoon Lengthening

  2.  The Soft Lengthening

  3.    The Compulsory Lengthening


Each of these categories will be described in detail of the next several tidbit lessons.  This lesson will focus on the first type of lengthening in the category of "lengthening caused by a hamzah."

The Medd Caused by a Hamzah

The Exchange Lengthening

Its definition:  The letter hamzah precedes any of the three medd letters.
Note: The vowel of the medd letter is on the hamzah.



It is called  , which means exchange, because of the exchange of a medd letter for a hamzah.  In these three above examples, there is a hamzah followed by a medd letter, and as noted previously, the vowel that is part of the medd letter is on the hamzah. 

There is a grammatical rule in Arabic that if there are two juxtaposed hamzahs in one word, the first voweled, the second not voweled, the second hamzah is exchanged for a medd letter of the same type as the vowel on the first hamzah.  This means that if the first hamzah has a fat-h on it, the second hamzah which has no vowel, will change into an alif; if the first hamzah has a kasrah on it, the second hamzah which is saakinah, changes into a saakinah; if the first hamzah has a dhammah on it, the second hamzah which is saakinah, changes into saakinah.  A reminder, the second hamzah must be saakinah and the first hamzah voweled before this rule is applied.

These above examples were originally as follows: .  As seen these words originally had two hamzahs, the first one had a vowel and the second a sukoon.  The second hamzah was changed into a medd letter from the category of the vowel of the first hamzah.  Not all cases of medd badl (a hamzah preceding a medd letter) have this origin (two hamzahs, the first with a vowel and the second with a sukoon), but we treat all cases of hamzah before a medd letter as      .

Note: This same grammatical rule comes into effect when we start on a verb that has a hamzah wasl and the second letter of that word is a hamzah saakinah, such as when starting the word: .  This will be covered later insha’ Allah in the tidbit lessons when the hamzah al-wasl is discussed in depth, but a reminder for now. 

This medd  is lengthened for two vowel counts by the way of recitation of Hafs ‘an ‘Aasim.  One of the other readers (not the way we read) lengthens  
  2, 4, or 6 vowel counts, which explains the reason this lengthening is in the secondary lengthening category. 

We lengthen this medd two counts, as long as a hamzah does not follow it.  If a hamzah follows it, we determine the lengthening according to the rule, which will be explained later.