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It is a lengthening that has a longer timing (or the possibility of longer
timing) than that of the natural medd
occurrence of a hamzah before or after a medd letter, or a sukoon after it,
regardless if the sukoon is permanent (when continuing and when stopping), or
if the sukoon is a presented one.
The medd due to hamzah
The medd due to sukoon
The medd due to hamzah
is sub-divided into four groups:
lengthening due to sukoon sub-divides into three types:
Each of these categories will be described in detail of the next several tidbit lessons. This lesson will focus on the first type of lengthening in the category of "lengthening caused by a hamzah."
The Medd Caused by a Hamzah
definition: The letter hamzah precedes any of the three medd letters.
which means exchange, because of the exchange of a medd letter for a hamzah.
In these three above examples, there is a hamzah followed by a medd letter,
and as noted previously, the vowel that is part of the medd letter is on the
is a grammatical rule in Arabic that if there are two juxtaposed hamzahs in
one word, the first voweled, the second not voweled, the second hamzah is
exchanged for a medd letter of the same type as the vowel on the first hamzah.
This means that if the first hamzah has a fat-h on it, the second
hamzah which has no vowel, will change into an alif; if the first hamzah has a
kasrah on it, the second hamzah which is saakinah, changes into a
saakinah; if the first hamzah
has a dhammah on it, the second hamzah which is saakinah, changes into
saakinah. A reminder, the second
hamzah must be saakinah and the first hamzah voweled before this rule is
These above examples were originally as follows: . As seen these words originally had two hamzahs, the first one had a vowel and the second a sukoon. The second hamzah was changed into a medd letter from the category of the vowel of the first hamzah. Not all cases of medd badl (a hamzah preceding a medd letter) have this origin (two hamzahs, the first with a vowel and the second with a sukoon), but we treat all cases of hamzah before a medd letter as .
This same grammatical rule comes into effect when we start on a verb that has
a hamzah wasl and the second letter of that word is a hamzah saakinah, such as
when starting the word:
This will be covered later insha’ Allah in the tidbit lessons when
the hamzah al-wasl is discussed in depth, but a reminder for now.
lengthened for two vowel counts by the way of recitation of Hafs ‘an
‘Aasim. One of the other readers (not the way we read)
We lengthen this medd two counts, as long as a hamzah does not follow it. If a hamzah follows it, we determine the lengthening according to the rule, which will be explained later.