What is the difference between istila and tafkheem and istifal and tarkheeq.
The characteristic of
is an inherent characteristic of seven letters. This characteristic is defined as:
Directing pressure of the letter to the roof of the mouth due to an elevation of the deepest part of the tongue when pronouncing an letter.
All the letters in the group of
have tafkheem. These letters are the those which form the words:
is the opposite characteristic and it is defined as: The absence of pressuring the letter to the roof of the mouth due to the lack of raising the deepest part of the tongue when pronouncing a letter of
. The remaining letters which are not in the group
All of letters of the group
have tafkheem but not all of the letters of
have the fixed state of tarqeeq. Most of the letters of
tarqeeq but some such as the راء ، ألف ، واللام sometimes have tafkheem and sometimes have tarqeeq.
So tafkheem and tarqeeq are not intrinsic characteristics, but