Assalaamu Alaikum Brothers and Sisters
I would like to know about the origins of the Maqaamat (musical scales) - also what is the ruling by the Ulamaa' as to whether it is permissible to recite the Qur'an with the Maqaamat in salaah.
Wassalaamu Alaikum warahmatullah
Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.
The Qur’an was not revealed with musical scales, the Prophet, did not read the Qur’an with musical scales, nor did the companions and those after them.
Dr. Sheikh Ayman Swayd, may Allah preserve him, wrote a small book entitled “Al-Bayaan lihukm qira’at al-Qur’an Al-Kareem bil-Alhaan”, meaning “The Clear statement on the ruling of reading the Qur’an with melodies”. In this small book, which is quite thorough, on page 44-45 , we have his concluding statements [translated and condensed]:
Reciting the Glorious Qur’an with tunes and musical melodies is bid’a, it was not by the Messenger of Allah, , nor the honorable companions, nor did Jibreel bring the revelations with them.
Beautifying the voice when reciting the Glorious Qur’an is a matter that is praiseworthy and desired in Sharee’ah, but that should be in with ones natural recitation and with natural Arabic tones, not with the foreign tones.
If one reads the Qur’an with a specific melody of musical melodies or tunes then the matter falls into one of two categories:
If he/she gives the tilaawah rules preference and focuses on them more than the musical tune, then the ruling is one of detest (karaahah), since this is not from the Prophet.
If he/she focuses on the musical tune more than the tajweed rules, then the scholars are in agreement that this form of reading the Qur’an is haraam and it is haraam to listen to it also.
Dr. Ayman also mentions in subsequent points the hadeeth in which we are ordered by the Prophet, to read the Qur’an with “yataghanna”, translated by some as tones, and explains that “yataghanna” has been stated by the scholars to mean one of two things:
The Qur’an replaces “yastaghnee” what is besides it as far as news and books. This is the statement of Sufyaan bin ‘Uyaanah and a large number of the taabi’een. [note that this meaning then has nothing to do with the sounds or tones when we are reading.]
One beautifies their voice when reading the Glorious Qur’an with his natural abilities not by following musical melodies.
As to the origin of musical scales, that is something can be searched on the Internet and beyond our scope of knowledge.
Wa assalaam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.