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Would you please explain why the word qamîsahu changes from having a fatha to dhamma and to fatha on the letter 'Sad'?

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Assalamu Aleikum wa rahmatu lilahi wa barakatu

1) I was learning some verses of surat Yusuf and found out that in verses 25 and 26 the word qamîsahu (shirt) changes from having a fatah on the letter "Sad" (verse 25) to a dhamma (verses 26 and 27). And then in verse 28 it has a fatah again. Would you please explain why the word changes from fatah to dhamma and to fatah?


2) Also I have a tape when a famous qari recited the verse 23 "... wa qâlat haytalak" in different ways. I know that in the riwayah of Warsh "haytalak" becomes "hiitalak" but he recited "haytalak" as: - "hi' tulak" and "hi'talak" with a sukoon on the hamzah. I was a little confused because I could not know which riwayah he used for these two words. So my question is: Are "hi'tulak" and "hi'talak" part of any way of recitation such as Qaloon or Bazee?


May Allah reward you inshallah and help you find the right answers.
Ma'a salam

Answer

Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatu Allahi wa barakatuh.

1.  The change in the vowels on the last letter of the word, which is the letter , reflects grammatical changes in the word.  The  that follows is a possessive pronoun, in this case.  In aayaat 26 and 27, , the word affects both nouns of the nominal sentence that follows.  The first noun of the nominal (verb less) sentence that follows becomes  and usually, but not always, this is seen as a dhammah on the last letter of the noun.  In aayah 28, the phrase: , has a passed tense verb, with the word being the direct object of the verb.  The direct object of a verb is , which usually, but not always, is seen as a fathah on the last letter of the noun. The vowel on the last letter of a single form verb and noun changes according to the grammar rules.  

2.  The word in the phrase   in aayah 23 of surah Yusuf is a word read different ways by different recitations.  Naafi’ (which includes both Qaloon and Warsh), Ibn Thakwaan, and Abu Ja’far read the word as: , with a kasrah on the .  This same word is read as:  with a sukoon on the and a dhammah on the  in the recitation of Ibn Katheer (Al-Bazee and Qunbul).  The recitation of Hishaam reads this word as , with a hamzah saakinah instead of a .  All the rest of the ways of recitation read this phrase as:  . 

May Allah reward you and increase you in beneficial knowledge.

Wa assalaam alaikum wa rahmatu Alllahi wa barakatuh.

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