Hamzah al-Wasl Lesson 3

In the last tidbit lesson, we described the different types of verbs that hamzah al-wasl enters as a first letter. 
Please refer to Hamzah Al-Wasl lesson 2 in the tidbit archives to review this lesson. 

It was stated last lesson that hamzah al-wasl may enter, as a first letter, past tense five and six letter basic make up verbs, and the command tense in basic make of three, five, and six letters verbs. 

  

The Vowel of the Hamzah Al-Wasl when beginning with it in verbs

The vowel of when beginning with it, in verbs, depends on the vowel on the

third letter of the verb.  NOTE:  The is considered a letter when counting the letters;
 a letter with a shaddah is counted as two letters.  There are two possible vowels when starting
with  in verbs. 

                 1.  A dhammah

                 2.  A kasrah

 

Starting verbs with a dhammah on the hamzah al-wasl

 1.   The hamzah-t al-wasl has a dhammah on it when beginning the word starting with it 
 if the third letter of the verb has a required or original dhammah (meaning the dhammah is
part of the original verb not an acquired one).

 

 Examples of this in past tense verbs are shown in the following aayaat:

  

 

If we look at the verb:     from aayah 26 of surah Ibraheem, we see that there is a hamzah wasl
as the first letter.  As stated previously, we need to count three letters to the left, counting the hamzah al-wasl
as the first letter.  We can see then, that the  is the third letter, and it has a dhammah on it. 
This is an original dhammah and we therefore start this word with a dhammah on the hamzah al-wasl. 
Remember, we only use the hamzah al-wasl when starting the word.  If we are reading in continuum with the
words before this verb, we would drop the hamzah al-wasl and join directly the vowel on the last letter of the word before  . 

 

Examples of this in the command form of verbs are shown in the following aayaat:

Starting verbs with a kasrah on the hamzah al-wasl

We begin hamzah al-wasl in a verb with a  kasrah when in the following cases:

 

A)  If the third letter of the verb has an original kasrah.  This is exemplified in the following aayaat:

 

 

 

 B)   When the third letter of the verb has a fat-h .  This is demonstrated in the following aayaat:

 

 

 C)  When the third letter of the verb has a presented dhammah. It is to be noticed that in these next six examples shown below the dhammah is a presented one due to the plurality of the command form of the verb that has an harf ‘ila ,  (either an alif, ya’ or wow)  as the last letter in the essential make up of the verb.  When these verbs are the plural command form, there would have been a ya’ saakinah followed by a wow saakinah which is quite heavy for the tongue, so the Arabs drop the ya’ saakinah in these forms of the verb, and the third letter acquires a presented dhammah.  These are the only five verbs in the Qur’an that have a presented dhammah in the third letter, but it should be noted that some of these verbs occur in the Qur’an in different forms of the same verb.  .  As stated previously, when starting with one of these six verbs, we start with a kasrah not a dhammah.

 

When starting with the word  it is read as  “” employing the rule of medd al-bedl which was previously discussed, which is: whenever there are two hamzahs next to each other in one word, the first voweled and the second non-voweled, the second hamzah is changed to a medd letter from the same type as the vowel on the first hamzah.  Therefore, since the first hamzah now has a kasrah, the second hamzah, which is saakinah, will change into a lengthened ya’. 

 

 

Still another item to be noticed is that if  the conjunctive   which means “and” precedes a verb that begins with a hamzah al-wasl, or another conjunctive letter such a  and we are beginning with this verb, we must begin with the   or due to its strong link to the verb.  We therefore read the wow with a fath, then continue reading the verb. We do not apply the  rules in this case.   An example of this is in the following: