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The Two Alike, the Two Similar, the Two Close, and the Two Far (Part 5)

 The Two Approximates to Each Other  

Its Definition:  It is two letters which are close in articulation point and/or in characteristics , or close in   There is a difference of opinion in the meaning of    in the two letters involved, the most important opinions are:

1.  That there is no separation between the articulation parts of the two letters. Instead, they should use the same articulating part (i.e. the tongue); or if they use two different articulation parts, there is no separation between the two parts (as in the tip of the tongue and the lips).

2.  The approximation of the two letters is a relative approximation, whether they use the same articulation part or not.  This opinion is used most when the two letters have closeness in characteristics, but not articulation points.

 An example of the two letters being close in articulation point and in characteristics is the  and  in the words  These two letters have their articulation points are quite close to each other (they both use the  tip of the tongue in their articulation point).  They are close in characteristics, as they share all of the same characteristics, except the characteristic of   which is exclusive to the . 

Another example is of the  and in the word
   . The two letters have different but close articulation points (both use the top of the tip of the tongue). The  and  are share all characteristics except that the  has and the has .

 Two letters close in articulation points but different in characteristics are  and , demonstrated in the words .  Their closeness in articulation points is obvious, their differences in characteristics are that the  has and   while has ,   and . 


 has three divisions, as the other groups of relationships do, they are:




The Two Small Close to each other

This is when the first of  letters is saakin, and the second of the two letters has a vowel.
 There is not an absolute  rule, instead there are special letters that have  when they are  and have the “small” relationship, and the rest of   with a small relationship have .   

   letters that follow in this lesson, and will continue in the next  have  when the first on is saakin and the second voweled ( ) .   

1.  The  saakinah into   :

This occurs whether the   is in a verb or participle.



An exception to the  rule the way we read ( ) occurs when there is a (or breathless pause) between the  and the * in aayah 14 of surah Al-Mutaffifeen: :


2.  The idghaam of the laam shamsiyyah letters.

  This occurs when the definite article  merges into 13 of the 14 letters of the  laam shamsiyyah group.  All of these letters have a “close” relationship with the letter  , and are the two letters are .

Exception: The letter is the fourteenth letter of the laam shamsiyyah group, but is not considered “close” with the  of the definite article, instead the two  are  , because they are the same exact letter: as in

Next lesson, insha’ Allah, we will continue with  and complete explaining which letters merge into the other when they have  relationship and discuss the rule for the two close to each other that have and  relationship.